Use of biofloc technology in shrimp farming

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Who can ignore the importance and necessity of aquaculture in today’s world? The supply of protein consumed by the world’s population depends mainly on the expansion and development of the aquaculture industry. In other words, aquaculture is the hope of human societies to achieve food security.

Activists in the aquaculture industry around the world are always looking for an answer to how to reduce costs while increasing production and minimizing environmental damage. In short, their main goal is to achieve more production, more profit, and sustainability.

In recent years, new methods and technologies have been used in the aquaculture industry to achieve the goals in the best way. Some of these new technologies include the use of aquaponics technology, cage culture, the use of high-density systems, biofloc technology, etc.

Biofloc is a new technology that meets three major objectives in aquaculture. Biofloc technology provides maximum production, sustainability, and increased profit.

What is biofloc?

Aquaculture discharges large amounts of waste from excess feed, feces, ammonia, etc. into the aquatic ecosystem which can have adverse environmental effects on aquatic animals and plants.

Biofloc technology is one of the new solutions in the aquaculture industry that reduces the entry of wastewater into the ecosystem and improves biosecurity on farms.

Biofloc technology adds carbon to breeding ponds’ water and balances the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio.

Carbon sources such as wheat flour, molasses, rice bran, gluten waste, whey powder, etc. are used to increase the carbon in the water of the breeding ponds. These carbon sources must be accessible, biodegradable, and economically viable. An increase in the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is necessary for bacterial growth.

Biofloc technology has two main goals: Improving water quality by reducing the need for water exchanges, and reducing the food conversion ratio by producing usable microbial protein.

What aquatic species can be farmed with biofloc technology?

Biofloc is one of the technologies whose positive results and achievements have been proven in the aquaculture industry. However, it should be noted that this technology cannot be used for all aquatic species. To use biofloc technology, the target species must have several characteristics. The aquatic species in question must be able to tolerate medium oxygen levels, survive at high densities, can feed on suspended particles in the water, be omnivorous, and have a digestive system with a high ability to absorb microbial particles.

Some of the aquatic animals that have been studied and tested with the biofloc system with positive results include carp, tilapia, and shrimp.

Studies have shown that the use of biofloc technology in shrimp farming has many benefits. Species whose growth indicators are effective with this technology include Monodon, Vannamei, and Japanese species.

In shrimp farming with biofloc technology, a certain amount of carbon is added to the water, which increases the ratio of carbon to nitrogen and creates a proper balance.

Methods of using Biofloc Technology in shrimp farming

Biofloc technology is used in two ways; the direct method and the indirect method.

The direct method is mainly used in semi-dense culture systems. In this method, nitrogen is available in the water from the shrimp feces, and by adding carbon to the pool water, a mass of biofloc is created in the pool water.

The indirect method is most commonly used in dense and high-density culture systems. In this method, biofloc mass is produced in separate tanks and then added to the breeding pool.

Advantages of using biofloc technology in shrimp farming

The important goal of sustainable aquaculture is achieved through the use of biofloc technology.

Biofloc technology minimizes the need for water exchanges during the breeding period. This greatly reduces the risk of shrimp disease by reducing the possibility of pathogens entering the breeding ponds. White spot disease is one of the diseases that can be optimally controlled with biofloc technology. As a result of the reduction in pathogenic factors, biofloc technology has a positive effect on shrimp survival.

Another important benefit of using biofloc technology is the reduction in the feed conversion ratio. This technology results in the production of microbial protein that can be consumed by shrimp. The result is a reduction in feed requirements and a reduction in production costs for farmers. Studies have shown that Vannamei shrimp consume approximately 29% of the biofloc in the pool water as food.

The presence of bacteria in the water helps the shrimp grow and strengthen better. Studies show that shrimp raised with biofloc technology have better growth, health, and safety.

Biofloc technology improves and enhances pool water quality by reducing the amount of nitrite and ammonia in the pool.

The use of biofloc technology for large-scale shrimp farming has many benefits for the marine ecosystem. It reduces the environmental impact of shrimp farming by minimizing effluent. As a result, this technology is one of the most important methods for achieving sustainable aquaculture.

It is worth mentioning that biofloc technology makes it possible to produce organic shrimp, which is of high quality and very popular in the world market.

As you see, biofloc technology not only increases shrimp production, but also reduces production costs and facilitates the ever-increasing need to achieve sustainable aquaculture. These are some reasons that leave no room for doubt and delay in the use and application of this technology. The widespread use of biofloc technology worldwide will bring significant progress to the shrimp farming industry, with positive benefits for producers, consumers, and the environment.

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