How will climate change affect shrimp farming?

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Aquaculture, particularly shrimp, provides a significant portion of the world’s protein consumption. The industry has also employed millions of people around the world. Contributions to community economies and food security are among the industry’s key achievements that underscore its importance.

Every strong and growing industry faces challenges. Addressing these challenges is a necessity for this industry. Climate change and its impact on shrimp farming is the challenge that shrimp farmers have faced in recent years. Shrimp are aquatic animals that are sensitive to changes in temperature and water parameters. Any disturbance in these cases can cause serious problems.

Shrimp farming has been significantly affected by climate change in recent years. Rising temperatures, heavy rains, droughts, storms, etc. are some of the challenges facing shrimp farming.

The impact of climate change on shrimp farming has been reported from different parts of the world. In India, a typhoon caused significant damage to shrimp farms in the state of Andhra Pradesh in 2018. Indonesia has also experienced severe storms in recent years, causing many problems for Indonesian farmers.

This paper examines the impact of major climate changes, including rainfall and rising temperature, on the shrimp aquaculture industry and proposes solutions to minimize these impacts.

The effect of heavy rains on shrimp farming

Rainfall during the breeding season can cause many problems for shrimp farmers. The heavier the rainfall, the more damage is done to the shrimp breeding process.

The first effect of the rain is to lower the temperature, i.e., the temperature drops about 5-6 degrees. The result is a decrease in shrimp feed intake. Studies have shown that when the water temperature drops by one degree, shrimp feed intake decreases by 5 to 10 percent.

As the water temperature drops, shrimp become sluggish and tend to congregate at the bottom of the pond. Their congregation at the bottom of the pond and their competition for oxygen puts them under great stress and challenges their health.

Water parameters such as pH, salinity, and alkalinity are also affected by rainfall. This can affect shrimp growth. As the pH and alkalinity of the water decrease, the number of phytoplankton and beneficial bacteria decrease. Decreased phytoplankton leads to decreased dissolved oxygen, which threatens shrimp growth and survival.

Lowering the pH of the water increases the toxicity of H2S. This weakens the immune system of the shrimp.

Another effect of heavy rains is the sound of raindrops falling on ponds. The water in the pond amplifies the sound of the rain, which is very stressful for the shrimp. To escape this noise, shrimp accumulate at the bottom of the pond and suffer from oxygen deprivation.

Finally, heavy rains change the temperature and parameters of the water, leading to diseases and losses in the breeding ponds.

The impact of rising temperatures on shrimp farming

As you know, the global temperature has been rising in recent years, and the effects are being felt by all living things. The increase in carbon dioxide is one of the reasons for the rise in global temperatures. Shrimp is very sensitive to environmental conditions. This makes them particularly vulnerable to rising temperatures. Increased disease outbreaks are the biggest problem facing shrimp farmers as temperatures rise. Rising temperatures reduce shrimp’s appetite for food and weaken their immune systems. This makes shrimp more susceptible to disease. Several types of shrimp diseases cause significant losses each year. One such disease, White Spot Virus Disease (WSSV), is most prevalent at high temperatures and causes widespread mortality.

what should be done?

Climate change is inevitable and will affect shrimp farming. What can be done to minimize these effects and reduce the damage caused by these changes?

The first thing to consider about climate change is awareness. To take the necessary and effective measures, a successful farmer must be aware of the direct and indirect effects of these changes.

Choosing the right location for a farm, using healthy and resilient larvae, maintaining water quality, providing appropriate food and nutrition management, crisis management, and using the latest technologies such as recirculating aquaculture systems are some of the measures that can be used to mitigate the adverse effects of climate change.

To be better and more effective in the face of these changes, there needs to be strong cooperation and coordination between the breeders, researchers, and managers of this industry. Climate change is a serious issue and reducing its negative impact on the growing shrimp farming industry will require a concerted effort.


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