Food management on the shrimp farm

Table of Contents

Post-larvae depend on artificial food after being released into pools. This food must have special proportions of chemical compounds that vary slightly depending on the species of farmed shrimp. The dose is generally considered as follows:

Protein% 32 – % 42

Lipid% 5 – % 7

Carbohydrates 20% -26%

Minerals 8% – 15%

Crude fiber 4%

Vitamins less than 1%

In addition, the food must have the required quality in terms of color, shape, odor and degree of stability in water. One of the most important parameters is the stability of food in water. Quality food should have a minimum dissolution rate in water, to be available to shrimp long enough. Otherwise, it either dissolves in water and acts as a fertilizer or settles in the bed, which after decomposing produce toxic gases, followed by a decrease in oxygen and poor quality of the bed. Because shrimp are benthic organisms, it can adversely affect the growth and survival of shrimp. On the other hand, the amount of chemical compounds in the food formula at different stages of growth is also different. For example, the protein content in the initial food is 38% and in the growth stages is considered 35%.

Feeding tray

It is used to assess the amount of food consumed and to adjust the feeding schedule, to evaluate the nutritional behavior of shrimp, to evaluate the rate of growth or biometrics, and to evaluate the presence of pests or diseases. The number of tray depends on the size of the pool, which is usually 4 in a half-hectare pool to 6-8 in a one-hectare pool.

Feeding

In the first fifteen days of the breeding period, the shrimp are fed from a crop called a blind ration. Thus, for every one hundred thousand post shrimp larvae, 2 kg of food is considered as a basic food, with a daily increase of 200 g, and in the second 15 days, with an increase of 300 g, as a basic food, and feeding is done in the morning and evening. From the 30th to the 60th breeding period, the feeding is based on the food tray. In this way, after calculating the amount of daily food, some food is poured into the food tray and after a certain period of time, it is checked and adjusted based on the amount of food consumed or rest.

For example, if all 4 trays of food are empty after 3 hours, the amount of food for the next day should be increased by 10%. If 3 trays are empty, the next day food should be increased 5%, if 2 trays are empty, no increase is made in the next day. And if the food trays are not empty after 3 hours, the amount of food in the next day is reduced by 10%. From day 60 onwards, food trays are controlled every 2 hours after feeding and the amount of increase or decrease is the same as above.

Feeding recommendations

Before feeding, moisten it with some fresh water, to make it a little heavier and to prevent the absorption of salt water into the food, which reduces the quality of the food. Avoid spraying food in the corners and center of the pool. The amount of daily food should be calculated and given based on the amount determined by checking the food tray. Do not use aerators when feeding.

Health management

One of the effective parameters in the success of shrimp farming, in addition to the above mentioned items, is health management (post larvae, food, ponds and personnel). If this parameter is neglected and ignored in shrimp farming, the industry will face a crisis due to a disease that sometimes leads to its closure. Post-larval supply workshops must fully comply with hygiene requirements and post-larvae must be free of any pathogens. Also, food sources must be provided from reputable and quality factories (in terms of the percentage of each biochemical compound) and in terms of health (rotten, deformed and stinky, not fungal) are 100% guaranteed

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