Everything you need to know about shrimp food

Table of Contents

Shrimp is a crustaceous animal that lives in both salt and fresh water. This creature needs food to supply the energy for its movement and growth. The food habits of shrimp depend on various factors such as age, species, and environmental conditions. For example, smaller shrimp need more food. Shrimp feed on both plants and aquatic animals.

In this article, we intend to examine shrimp food from different aspects.

Various types of natural foods

There is some natural food in the shrimp ponds, which includes algae, bacteria, fungus, and plankton. In order to increase and improve natural food, the fertilization method is used. Farmers use animal and mineral fertilizers in shrimp farms. These fertilizers contain nutrients such as phosphorus, potassium, and nitrogen and provide some parts of the nutritional needs of shrimp.

Formulated foods

The natural foods in the pond are insufficient for the growth of shrimp; therefore, the farmers provide formulated feed to compensate for this shortage. The most expensive part of shrimp production is the feeds; so, the farmers are forced to invest a lot in this part yearly. In fact, formulated feeds include about 60 to 70 percent of the production costs. Nevertheless, it has a noticeable effect on shrimp growth and its production amount.

formulated feeds are produced in shrimp food factories. These foods are different in terms of size. The amount of shrimp food depends on the size of the shrimp. Small foods are used for post larvae and coarse foods are used for adult shrimps. According to the different stages of shrimp growth, the foods are divided into three general categories: starter, grower, and finisher.

These feeds can be dry, moist, or wet. Most of the formulated feeds are dry or wet. Dry foods are easier to transport and store, although wet foods are more attractive to shrimp. Dry and wet foods are produced in the form of pellets, small pieces, granules, balls, etc.

Some factories produce re-hydratable foods. These foods are actually dry, but when soaked in water, they quickly absorb water and become moist.

Food formulation

formulated feeds are made from a combination of several different ingredients. These combinations are based on the nutritional needs of shrimp. The main components are fat, protein, moisture, carbohydrates, vitamins, fiber, and minerals.

The food resources used in the production of shrimp food are fodder, herbs, plant roots, fish and shrimp powder, oil seeds, grains and additives. These ingredients are mixed together and make shrimp food.

Important factors for choosing shrimp food

Shrimp food is one of the most important and expensive issues in shrimp breeding; therefore, choosing the proper food is very important. There are several factors that affect the quality and suitability of shrimp food, which include:

1- Stability in water: food should remain in water for about 3 to 4 hours. If the shelf life is less or more than usual, it means that the food is not suitable.

2- Attractiveness of food: shrimp must show interest in food.  Not interesting in food shows that it is not suitable for shrimp and should be replaced.

3- Healthiness and quality of food: Shrimp food should be healthy in all aspect and harmful chemicals or poisons should not be used in it. It is necessary that its ingredients should be high quality. The lack of quality and healthiness of the food causes a decrease in production and losses.

4- Size of food: The size of the food should be proportional to the size of the shrimp. Small shrimps should be fed small foods and larger shrimps should be fed coarse foods.

5-Physical condition of shrimp food: suitable and high-quality food has the same size and uniform color, is free of dust, has a normal smell and is not covered with mold.

Food supplements

In addition to formulated foods, farmers sometimes use nutritional supplements. Shrimp have various vitamin and mineral needs. Supplements contain vitamins and minerals that prevent disease and malnutrition, increase their resistance to environmental conditions and their growth. These supplements are usually mixed in a small amount with formulated food and poured into the pools at specific times (weekly or monthly).

Type of food and its amount

The amount of food is an important issue in shrimp breeding. If there is a small amount of food for shrimp, it will cause them not to grow and the production will decrease. On the other hand, giving too much food causes food waste and water pollution. Therefore, having a suitable schedule is necessary.

The amount of food depends on factors such as age, size of shrimp, type of food and water conditions of the pool. The experts’ recommendation is to feed the shrimp several times. Shrimp food is given four or five times a day. Feeding is done manually or through a machine. Food dispensers are automatic devices that spread food on the surface of the pool based on the time program given to them.

Follow-up of food results

It is noteworthy to evaluate the food operations and to record the information related to the amount and type of food. This information helps the farmers to find out whether the amount and the type of food match the needs of the shrimp or not. Also, the analysis of this information will be useful for future programs.

A food tray is a tool to check the consumption of food. And a specific amount of food at a specific period of time can be checked through it.

Shrimp food producers in Iran and the world

In the last three decades, the increase in shrimp production has caused an increase in the demand for shrimp food. Based on the CAGR statistics, the global market of shrimp food reached a value of 66 million dollars in 2018. This number is expected to reach 103 million dollars in 2024.

Now, the largest producers of shrimp food are Asian countries such as India, Japan and China.

Since the beginning of the shrimp breeding industry, shrimp food production factories have been built in Iran. The first factories were generally located in Tehran and the northern provinces. A shrimp food production factory was established in Bushehr in 2001. Then, these factories were also built in Hormozgan, Lorestan, Chaharmahal and Bakhtiari. Now, Iran has reached self-sufficiency in the production of shrimp food and does not need imports.

Shrimp food in the future

Researchers and scientists are always doing research to find a suitable substitute for fish powder in shrimp food. Studies have been done on the use of plant substitutes, such as cotton seeds, which have been satisfactory.

Environmental experts warn that replacing fish powder with herbal materials will increase pressure on the earth and increase environmental pollution. This is one of the challenges of shrimp food production and we have to see where it ends in the future.

At Atlas Meigoo Khalij Fars Company, we use the highest quality foods to feed shrimp. Taking into account the experts’ opinions and carrying out continuous evaluations has helped us in choosing the best food and has caused us to preserve the quality of our products. All our effort is to provide a good and excellent product for consumers and we will spare no effort to achieve this.

Sources

Azhdari, A., Mirzaee, M.R., & Rahimi, Gh. (2020). Sanat Tolid Khorak Meigoo Parvareshi Dar Jahan va Iran ba Takid Bar Ayendegari, Meigoo va Sakhtpoostan,5(2), 9-14. https://journals.areeo.ac.ir/article_125058.html

New, Michael B. Feed and feeding of fish and shrimp. Translated by Abbas Mateenfar. United Nations Development Programme, 1987.

https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200312005389/en/Glo bal-Shrimp-Feed-Market-2020-2024-Evolving-Opportunities-with- Archer-Daniels-Midland-Co.-and-Avanti-Feeds-Ltd.-Technavio

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