Common diseases in shrimp

Table of Contents

Shrimp farming is one of the most important aquaculture industries in the world. The many benefits of shrimp consumption have made it flourish all over the world. This industry has resulted in significant profitability and job creation. In addition, it is considered a suitable solution to solve environmental problems.

This industry, like others, faces challenges. One of the most important challenges is the presence of various diseases that cause serious problems in shrimp production.

Shrimp diseases cost farmers millions of dollars each year. These diseases have the effect of reducing shrimp production, which doubles the importance of this issue.

Several factors cause shrimp diseases, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, fungi, improper nutrition, exposure to toxic and chemical agents, and adverse water parameters.

Let’s start with an overview of the most important and common diseases in shrimp aquaculture.

1- White Spot Syndrome (WSS)

White Spot Syndrome is one of the most important viral diseases of shrimp. This disease has caused significant losses to the shrimp farming industry in most parts of the world. This virus is easily transmitted by insect larvae and phytoplankton. Symptoms are white spots on the body of the shrimp, redness of its organs, loss of appetite, and severe mortality within seven days.

2- Yellow-Head Disease (YHD)

Yellow-head disease is another viral disease that affects shrimp, in particular black tiger shrimp (Penaeus monodon). It affects 5–15-gram shrimp and causes the shrimp to overeat for one to two days and then stop eating. Infected shrimp have yellow hepatopancreas and pale color. After three days, their mortality begins and reaches its peak up to 9 days later.

3- White Feces Syndrome (WFS)

White feces disease is one of the newfound diseases in the shrimp farming industry. This disease affects Penaeid, especially Vannamei and Monodon. It has been observed in Southeast Asian countries such as China, Thailand, Indonesia, etc. The causes of this disease are bacterial and parasitic factors.

Symptoms of white feces disease are loose shells, white feces, and dark gills in shrimp. This disease causes high feed conversion ratios, high size variation at harvest, and mortality.

One way to prevent white feces is to reduce stocking densities during the hot months of the year.

4- Taura Syndrome (TS)

Taura disease is caused by a virus and is spread to nearby ponds by insects, birds, or shrimp. It usually occurs about 2 to 4 weeks after stocking post-larvae in the ponds. Visible symptoms are loose shells, red pigmentation on the body surface, especially the tail, and lethargy and weakness in the shrimp.

5- Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis (IHHNV)

Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis disease is a viral disease that causes significant damage to the shrimp farming industry. This disease only affects the shrimp of the Penaeidae family. Of course, it should be noted that different Penaeid shrimp species vary in their susceptibility to this disease. Modified Vannamei shrimp have a high resistance to this disease. The complications of this disease are tilted rostrum, increase in food conversion ratio, slow growth and size variation of shrimp.

6- Covert Mortality Nodavirus (CMNV)

Covert Mortality Nodavirus is another viral disease of shrimp. It is a new disease in the shrimp farming industry that has affected many Asian countries. The species that are susceptible to this disease include Vannamei, Black Tiger, Japanese and Chinese species. The symptoms of this disease are white muscle, empty stomach and intestines, soft shell, and slow growth.

CMNV appears 60 days after the beginning of the breeding period and causes high losses.

7- Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease (AHPND)

Acute Hepatopancreatic Necrosis Disease has been the nightmare of aquaculture producers in recent years. It is caused by a type of bacteria that has been wreaking havoc on shrimp farms since 2009, especially in Asian countries.

It occurs about 20 to 30 days after the beginning of the breeding period and is called the early mortality syndrome (EMS) because it causes extensive and early losses. Among the early symptoms of this disease, we can mention the paleness and smallness of the hepatopancreas, empty stomach and intestines, soft shell and slow growth. This disease eventually causes high mortality of shrimp. Between 2011 and 2014, this disease caused farm productivity to decrease by up to 25% worldwide.

Disease prevention and control methods in shrimp farms

As you have seen, shrimp diseases are caused by various factors such as bacteria, viruses, environmental factors, etc. Considering the many losses in the shrimp farming industry caused by these diseases, it is important to apply methods to prevent the disease.

Methods that can be used to prevent the occurrence of diseases in shrimp farms include:

Use of healthy post-larvae

Good post-larvae transportation

Post-larvae stocking in appropriate conditions

Use of high quality feed

Adequate feeding

Management of water parameters

Intake water filtration

Waste water management

Installing a net to prevent birds and other animals from entering the ponds

Disinfection of vehicles and equipment

Personal hygiene

Restrict different people from entering the Farm

Waste Management

It is necessary for shrimp farmers to keep their information and knowledge of diseases and their causative factors up to date and to employ experts in disease prevention and control.

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