Artemia, small but influential

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Many players have contributed to the growth and development of the aquaculture industry. It is necessary to mention the role of each actor when talking about a powerful and growing industry. The role of the main links in the aquaculture industry chain has been discussed many times. In this article, we will examine the role of one of the tiny but powerful players in this industry, Artemia, also known as the saltwater shrimp. Stay with us.

What is Artemia?

Artemia is a small aquatic organism that lives in salt water. The name Artemia is derived from its appearance and means blue earring. Artemia belongs to the phylum Arthropoda, the class Crustacean, and the suborder Branchiopoda. Artemia is used in aquaculture as live food to feed farmed fish, shrimp, sturgeon, etc. Due to its high nutritional value, it plays an important role in this industry. Artemia was first observed in England, and historical reports indicate that some human tribes used Artemia as food in the past.

The body of Artemia consists of three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. The minimum body length of Artemia is 10 mm and the maximum is 20 mm, and female Artemia is larger than male Artemia. In addition to male and female Artemia, a group of Artemia is parthenogenesis; therefore, Artemia reproduces in two ways: sexual and parthenogenesis. Artemia has an elongated body and 11 pairs of swimming legs. The body color of Artemia is reddish pink. The genital organ of the male Artemia is located in the posterior part and the uterine sac of the female Artemia is located behind the eleventh leg. One of the distinguishing aspects of Artemia is the presence of two pincers in the male Artemia, which is not seen in the female Artemia. The life cycle of Artemia is cyst, nauplius, meta-nauplius, juvenile, and adult. Artemia has a short lifespan, averaging 45 days. Each female Artemia will spawn approximately 12 times in her lifetime.

Different species of Artemia

Artemia lives in about 500 geographical areas and has a wide variety of species. The best-known species of Artemia are Franciscana, Monica, Persimilis, Sinica, Urmiana, Salina, and Kazakhstan.

In the three continents of Asia, America, and Europe, there are seven known species of Artemia. In Iran, there are Artemia Urmiana and Artemia Franciscana species. Due to its adaptability, Artemia franciscana is suitable for cultivation.

The Value of Artemia in Aquaculture

Artemia is used as a feed in the aquaculture industry in the form of shelled cysts, Nauplius, meta-Nauplius, juvenile, mature, dried and frozen Artemia. It has a high nutritional value for all types of aquatic animals such as fish and shrimp. Artemia contains approximately 55% protein and 4-20% fat and is one of the best sources of amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Artemia increases the growth and survival rate of aquatic animals. Artemia is easily digestible, easy to catch and culture, its various forms can be used for aquatic animal feeding, it can be stored for long periods in dry and cold conditions, it has an appropriate size, it is easy to transport and it can be used as a carrier of vitamins or antibiotics.

The best time to use Artemia

It is recommended to use Artemia in the early stages of the aquatic life cycle. In shrimp hatcheries, Artemia is used as a larval food because it is more digestible for larvae and has a high nutritional value. Artemia is also used as an early season feed in shrimp farms. The use of formulated feeds after storage causes a shock to the larvae’s intestines because they have been fed Artemia in the hatchery. In addition, the growth and health of the shrimp is improved by consuming Artemia in the early days of the season. It is preferable to use Artemia for three to seven days when feeding shrimp in the nursery and growing stages. Excessive use of Artemia can be a health hazard to shrimp because unused Artemia will compete with shrimp larvae for resources and will also reduce the quality of the pond water.

Cultivation of Artemia

Artemia is one of the few species of aquatic animals that can be produced in a short time. Currently, countries such as Brazil, America and China are producing this seafood and making a lot of profit from it. Statistics show that about 3000 tons of Artemia cysts are traded worldwide every year. Since 1980, the world consumption of Artemia has increased 30 times and the economic value of Artemia in the world market is increasing.

Artemia is considered an integral part of the early days of shrimp farming. Despite the high capital requirements, its use brings good profits to the farmers due to its significant effects.

References:

file:///C:/Users/Digital%20Center/Downloads/%DA%86%D8%A7%D9%BE%20%D8%B4%D8%AF%D9%87%20%D8%B3%D8%A7%D8%B2%D9%85%D8%A7%D9%86.pdf

https://scj.areeo.ac.ir/article_121910.html
https://civilica.com/doc/416392/certificate/print/
https://thefishsite.com/articles/getting-the-most-out-of-artemia-in-shrimp-aquaculture

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