9 Key Biosecurity Strategies for Shrimp Farms

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The aquaculture industry, particularly shrimp farming, is subject to widespread disease. Each year, the global shrimp farming industry suffers significant losses due to disease outbreaks. If you are not familiar with common diseases in shrimp farming, please read our special article on the subject before reading this article.

At a time when shrimp diseases have become a serious and undeniable problem, the success of shrimp farming depends on the use of disease prevention measures.

With the help of technology and modern science, aquaculture specialists try to provide the best solutions to prevent aquatic diseases.

Biosecurity is a concept that is becoming increasingly important due to the spread of disease.

Biosecurity in aquaculture refers to a set of measures used to prevent pathogens, parasites, or other harmful organisms from entering aquaculture systems. Compared to other aquatic animals, shrimp do not have a highly developed immune system; therefore, it is very important to implement biosecurity solutions in the shrimp farming industry.

Now that you understand the concept and importance of biosecurity, let’s look at some strategies that shrimp farmers can use to increase biosecurity on their farms.

1- Pond Preparation:

Pond preparation is the first step in the farming process. In order not to jeopardize the biosecurity of the farm, it should be done in a principled and precise manner. To prepare the ponds, the leftover shrimp from the previous season or waste in the pond is first collected. Then the pond bottom is washed. After washing, the pond bottom is left to dry. The next step is plowing, followed by liming. After these steps are completed, the pond bottom is dried by sunlight and, if necessary, the slope of the pond bottom is corrected.

2- Equipment Preparation:

In addition to pond preparation, it is necessary to prepare the equipment and facilities associated with the ponds to be ready for the arrival of the larvae. This equipment includes nets, feeding trays, catwalks, aerators, feeders, etc. All these equipment and facilities should be cleaned and disinfected according to hygienic principles.

It is better to have a separate measuring device for each of the ponds. If a common measuring device is used for all the ponds, the measuring device must be cleaned with a suitable disinfectant after it has been used in each of the ponds.

3- Basic principles of water treatment in shrimp farms:

Pond water can be a source of disease and pathogen transmission. Therefore, it is essential to take the necessary steps to ensure that the pond water is clean and healthy.

To improve water quality, water should first enter the reservoir ponds and then be transferred to the breeding ponds.

The possibility of contamination and pathogens is reduced by creating diverse and high-quality filtration in the water inlet path. The use of crab and bird nets is another helpful solution to prevent contamination of the pond water.

4- – Proper maintenance of the feed:

Shrimp feed is prepared in large quantities and proper maintenance during the breeding season is important.

The feed storage area must be properly ventilated; feed packages should be stacked on pallets so that air can flow around them; the feed storage area should be dry and cool; and the floor and walls of the storage area should be washable. It should be noted that access to the storage area by different people should be prevented.

5- Post larvae health assessment:

Providing healthy post-larvae is always one of the most important concerns of shrimp farmers. To ensure their health, the following points should be considered: post-larvae should be supplied from accredited and approved hatcheries; post-larvae must have a health and disease-free certificate. The health of the larvae should be checked by an expert before they are sent to the farm. Favorable conditions should be provided during transport to the farm to prevent stress.

6- Stocking Post-Larvae:

To stock post-larvae, acclimation should be done first. Acclimation means adjusting the temperature and salinity of the water in the post-larvae bags and pond water to prevent stress on the shrimp.

It is recommended that post-larvae be stocked in the early morning hours. The use of nursery ponds is a good solution to increase the biosecurity of farms and has other benefits such as reducing the food conversion ratio (FCR).

7- Water Management:

Throughout the growing season, it is necessary to monitor the physicochemical parameters of the water. These parameters include the amount of dissolved oxygen, water temperature, salinity, clarity, pH, etc. Continuous monitoring of these cases is a good way to prevent the occurrence of diseases on farms. Instruments such as oxygen meters, thermometers, and salinity meters can be used to measure these parameters.

8- Nutrition Management:

The feed consumed by shrimp plays an important role in their health. Supplying high-quality feed from reputable centers is one of the basic principles of shrimp farming. Another important factor that contributes to farm biosecurity is proper nutrition management. Daily and regular assessments and checks through feeding trays will determine the nutritional needs of the shrimp. Overfeeding or underfeeding will result in problems such as water pollution in the ponds or lack of growth in the shrimp.

9- Control the movement of people:

Throughout the breeding season, the entry and exit of people and the workers on the farm must be controlled to prevent the transmission of pathogens to the farm. Farm workers should follow hygiene principles, use special and disposable clothing, and disinfect their hands and feet. Special disinfection ponds should be set up at the farm entrance so that vehicles entering the farm are completely disinfected.

Applying these methods and measures may seem expensive at first, and some breeders may be reluctant to use them, but the fact is that allocating capital to increase farm biosecurity costs much less than the losses caused by disease.

At Atlas Meigoo Khalij Fars Co. we are constantly striving to raise the biosecurity of our farm to the highest level by taking the necessary measures to deliver a completely healthy and disease-free product to our consumers around the world.

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